SPLTRAK Abstract Submission
Pathways to High Efficiency Perovskite Monolithic Solar Modules 
Xuezeng Dai1, Shangshang Chen1, Yehao Deng1, Allen Wood1, Guang Yang1, Chengbin Fei1, Jinsong Huang1,2
1Department of Applied Physical Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , CHAPEL HILL, NC, United States
/2Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CHAPEL HILL, NC, United States

With the rapidly improving efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells, the transition of small area device fabrication innovations into modules is becoming increasingly important for the commercialization of this technology. The record efficiencies of small perovskite cells are already approaching that of the best silicon crystal solar cells, but the module efficiencies are still far behind. Understanding the factors causing the cell-to-module (CTM) efficiency loss is critical for large area perovskite module development. Here, we experimentally validated a comprehensive model that analyzes the CTM efficiency loss with a precision better than 97%. Using the model, we deciphered the impact of the critical module components and fabrication variables, including perovskite bandgap, transparent electrodes, scribing lines, and film uniformity, on module aperture efficiency. Our analysis provides pathways toward the aperture efficiency ceiling of 25.8% for single-junction perovskite solar modules with a bandgap of 1.49 eV. Enlightening by the model, we found that the tandem structures have intrinsic merit to achieve high-efficiency perovskite modules of 28.4% with much lower CTM derate due to the smaller photocurrent but larger photovoltage.