SPLTRAK Abstract Submission
Upstream-Downstream Optimization of Volt-Var Control in Smart Grids
Laura Fardin, Christiano Lyra, Fernanda C. L. Trindade
University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil

Renewable energy sources have become increasingly used in several countries worldwide, especially photovoltaic energy. In this context, there is the photovoltaic distributed generation, which has gained many supporters due to the possibility of reducing electricity costs for the consumer. However, this type of technology causes several challenges for the distribution utility due to the bidirectional power flow. The objective of this study was to propose an optimization method to reduce total energy losses and the voltage rises caused by distributed generation. This study suggested an optimization of simultaneous voltage and reactive power control (volt-var control (VVC)) based on dynamic programming concepts. This optimization strategy works on traditional distribution network equipment and new equipment (smart inverters), changing the reactive power injection seeking the point of minimum loss without voltage transgressions. This optimization strategy was applied in a network of 12 buses with generation distributed in 6 of these buses. A typical load curve was used as a basis for the studies for consumers' energy consumption and photovoltaic generation on a clear day. Energy losses are obtained from three different perspectives: 1. without photovoltaic generation; 2. with photovoltaic generation and VVC; 3. with the photovoltaic generation, but without VVC. The first prospect returned the possible minor loss, as expected. Only with the insertion of photovoltaic generation, there was an increase of about 8.62 kWh in total active losses. The proposed optimal VVC resulted in a reduction of approximately 1% in total active losses. Even though 1% may seem like a small decrease in energy loss, the economic impact of such a decrease is considerable.