SPLTRAK Abstract Submission
Grid-Forming and Grid-Following Inverter Comparison of Droop Response
Nicholas S. Gurule1, Javier Hernandez-Alvidrez1, Matthew J Reno1, Wei Du2, Kevin Schneider2
1Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, United States
/2Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, United States

With the increase in penetration of inverter-based resources (IBRs) in the electrical power system, the ability for these devices to provide grid support to the system has become a necessity. With standards previously developed for the interconnection requirements of grid-following inverters (most commonly photovoltaic inverters), it has been well documented how these inverters “should” respond to changes in voltage and frequency. However, with other IBRs such as grid-forming inverters (GFMIs) (used for energy storage systems, standalone systems, and as uninterruptable power supplies) these requirements are either: not yet documented, or require a more in deep analysis. With the increased interest in microgrids, GFMIs that can be paralleled onto a distribution system have become desired. With the proper control schemes, a GFMI can help maintain grid stability through fast response conpared to rotating machines. This paper will present an experimental comparison of commercially available grid-forming and grid-following inverters responses to voltage and frequency deviation, as well as the grid-forming inverters operating as a standalone system and subjected to various changes in loads.