Tutorials and Short Courses

This year the IEEE PVSC will be offering a full day short course on Saturday June 7th and half day tutorials on Sunday June 8th, 2013. The tutorials and short courses cover a wide range of photovoltaic related topics, presented by the leading experts in the field. Both the short course and tutorials will be held at the Colorado Convention Center. Separate registration is required for each event. For tutorials, you may only select one morning and one afternoon event. Simply log into your online registration account and edit your registration to add any of the tutorials listed below.

Please note the following times for the Tutorials and Short Courses:

Saturday Short Course: 8:30 AM - 5:00 PM
Sunday AM Tutorials: 8:30 AM - 12:00 PM
Sunday PM Tutorials: 1:30 PM - 5:00 PM


Short Course

  • SC1: Thin Film Deposition

Morning Tutorials

  • AM1. Introduction to Photovoltaics (PV101/201)
  • AM2. Technology Status and Critical Issues for Manufacturing High Volume Thin Film Photovoltaics: CdTe, Cu(InxGa1-x)Se2, Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 and a-Si/nc-Si
  • AM3. High Efficiency Multijunction Cell Technology for Terrestrial Concentrators and Space Photovoltaics
  • AM4. Characterization Part I: Advanced Electrical Characterization Techniques and Analysis
  • AM5. Photovoltaic System Performance Modeling

Afternoon Tutorials/Workshops

  • PM1. Third Generation Photovoltaics: Advanced Concepts to Boost Efficiencies Beyond the Schockley-Queisser Limit
  • PM2. Photovoltaic Module Reliability
  • PM3. Silicon Solar Cell Technology
  • PM4. Characterization Part II: Electro-Optical and Structural Characterization of PV Materials and Devices
  • PM5. Distributed Grid Integration using Solar PV Systems
  • PM6. Meeting the Future Education and Training Needs of the Photovoltaic Workforce

Select a tutorial/short course below for additional information:

SC1 Short Course on Thin Film Deposition (offered on Saturday)

Instructor: Dr. Angus Rockett, Professor, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

This full day short course introduces students to the fundamentals of vapor phase deposition processes, thin film nucleation and growth, epitaxy, and the specific processes of evaporation, sputtering, and chemical vapor deposition (including a brief introduction to atomic layer deposition). The vapor phase deposition portion includes an introduction to vacuum, mean-free-paths, flux incident on surfaces, etc. Adsorption, desorption, surface diffusion, classical nucleation theory, wetting, surface energy effects, strain, and mechanisms of ion modification of materials are covered. Special issues related to epitaxial growth, critical thickness and mechanisms of strain relief are described. Discussion of evaporation include types of evaporation sources, flux distributions from evaporation sources and effusion cell design, and flux monitoring techniques including RHEED oscillations. Sputter deposition describes the basic mechanisms of sputtering, fundamentals of magnetron and rf sputtering processes, sputter yields, cosputtering, reactive sputtering, and methods of obtaining energetic fluxes of ions at a substrate to produce ion modification of the growth processes. Finally, basic chemical vapor deposition is described. This includes reaction and gas transport rate limited growth, hot and cold wall reactors, reactant selection issues, gas handling and safety, gas phase reaction processes, illustration of various CVD methods based on examples from GaAs deposition, selective CVD, and plasma-enhanced CVD are discussed. Finally a brief overview of the concepts of atomic layer deposition is provided.

Students should be aware that this is a very large range of topics to cover in the time available so the coverage of individual topics will necessarily be limited. Complete one or two day short courses on most of these topics are available from the American Vacuum Society and other organizations.

Instructor Biography
Angus Rockett is a professor of materials science and engineering at the University of Illinois. He received a Ph.D from the same department and a B.S in Physics from Brown University. He is a past President of the American Vacuum Society and was the 2012 Program Chair for the IEEE PVSC. He has an extensive history of activities with the Materials Research Society, the AVS, and the IEEE. He is a short course instructor for the AVS for their Sputter Deposition of Thin Films and Photovoltaics short courses and has given tutorial lectures for the IEEE PVSC and the MRS as well as at numerous international conferences and universities. He is the author of The Materials Science of Semiconductors and has over 120 publications in refereed journals. He currently serves as a member of the AVS Publications Committee and as an Associate Editor of the Journal of Photovoltaics.

AM1 Introduction to Photovoltaics (PV101/201)

Instructor: Dr. Jenny Nelson, Professor, Department of Physics, Imperial College London
This tutorial will cover the basic principles of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion and the operation of key varieties of photovoltaic device. We will cover: Solar to electric energy conversion and limiting efficiency; the p-n junction solar cell; processes of charge carrier generation, collection, and recombination; current status and prospects of various PV materials technologies. In particular, we will address the principles and developments in organic and hybrid heterojunction solar cells, and discuss the similarities and differences with standard PV devices. The course will be suitable for those with a background in physics, chemistry, materials science or engineering, who are not yet familiar with photovoltaic device physics.

Jenny Nelson is a Professor of Physics at Imperial College London, where she has researched novel varieties of material for use in solar cells since 1989. Her current research is focused on understanding the properties of molecular semiconductor materials and their application to "plastic" solar cells. This work combines fundamental electrical, spectroscopic and structural studies of molecular electronic materials with numerical modelling and device studies, with the aim of optimizing the performance of plastic solar cells. Since 2010 she has been working together with the Grantham Institute for Climate Change at Imperial to explore the mitigation potential of PV and other technologies. She has published over 200 articles in peer reviewed journals, several book chapters and a book on the physics of solar cells.

AM2 Technology Status and Critical Issues for Manufacturing High Volume Thin Film Photovoltaics: CdTe, Cu(InxGa1-x)Se2, Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 and a-Si/nc-Si

Instructors: Dr. Tim Anderson, Dean of Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, and Dr. Steven Hegedus, Scientist, Institute of Energy Conversion, University of Delaware

Thin film semiconductors have been investigated as absorber layers for large scale photovoltaic since the 1960's based on the promise of low manufacturing cost for large-area high-throughput PV modules. Three thin film absorber materials emerged in the 1980's as being technically and commercially viable for solar cells: CdTe, CuInSe2-based, and Si-based. More recently the Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 kesterite material has received intense research as an earth-abundant absorber layer. The Si films are either amorphous or nanocrystalline while the other three are polycrystalline. Each is configured as a multilayer heterojunction device fabricated on glass, foil, or plastic substrates. Sustained worldwide research and development have significantly increased our understanding the materials chemistry and physics leading to advanced device structures and high-throughput processing at high yield. Each technology has the benefits common to thin films but each has specific challenges. In this tutorial, we will provide an overview of the basic processing sequence, device structures, manufacturing options, and key challenges for each thin film technology. Based on our 3 decades of direct involvement in thin film PV, we will review the evolution of each thin film technology into today's commercial success and identify critical issues limiting wider commercialization. The course is intended for graduate students, industrial researchers and technologists interested in an overview of the technologies as well has understanding the fundamental materials chemistry, device operation and characterization and process engineering.

Tim Anderson served on the faculty of the Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Florida for 35 years before joining the University of Massachusetts, Amherst in 2013, where he is a Distinguished Professor. He has an active program in thin film CuInxGa1-xSe2 and Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 photovoltaics as well as growth of III-V materials for optoelectronic devices. His group is credited with over 230 publications and he has supervised over 65 Ph.D. graduates. Prof. Anderson is the inaugural editor-in-chief of the IEEE J. of Photovoltaics, inaugural Associate Editor (Solar Energy) of WIREs: Energy and Environment, member of the editorial advisory board of J. Energy Systems, and a Fellow of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

Dr. Steven Hegedus has been involved in solar cell research for 30 years at the Institute of Energy Conversion (IEC) at the University of Delaware (UD), the world's oldest photovoltaic research laboratory. He is a Senior Scientist who has worked on all of the commercially active solar cell technologies - a-Si, CdTe, Cu(InGa)Se2, organic, and c-Si. Areas of active research have included optical enhancement, a-SiGe alloys, textured TCOs, thin film device analysis and characterization, a-Si/c-Si heterojunctions, back contact back junction solar cells, and stability of CdTe and CIGS devices under accelerated degradation conditions. He co-edited the 1st and 2nd editions of the "Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering" (Wiley 2003, 2011) and he is a co-editor of the journal "Progress in Photovoltaics".

AM3 High Efficiency Multijunction Cell Technology for Terrestrial Concentrators and Space Photovoltaics

Instructors: Dr. Frank Dimroth, Head of Department III-V - Epitaxy and Solar Cells, Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy, and Dr. Myles Steiner, III-V Multijunction Materials and Devices Group, National Renewable Energy Laboratory

The tutorial will give a general introduction to the field of high efficiency multijunction solar cells for the use in space and terrestrial concentrator systems. It will start from basic theoretical considerations and explain the benefits of using several pn-junctions to convert the broad solar spectrum into electricity. Some historical background of the technology development will be given. The tutorial will review specific requirements for the use of modern multijunction solar cells in different environments, including radiation hardness and a high efficiency/weight ratio for space cells, and high current capacity and thermal dissipation for terrestrial concentrators. The most successful solar cell structures leading to > 44 % efficiency will be introduced and next generation concepts including ultra thin (~10 ┬Ám) devices, III-V on Si devices and wafer bonding architectures will be presented. The tutorial will also cover the role of photon management and high internal radiative efficiency in state-of-the-art solar cells. Photon recycling, luminescent coupling and light trapping will be discussed, as well as the consequences of these effects on the measurements of multijunction cells.

Myles Steiner is a senior scientist in the III-V Materials and Devices group at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, in Golden, Colorado, where he works on III-V multijunction solar cells for CPV applications. His recent research has focused on photon management in high-efficiency cells. Before joining NREL as a post-doc in 2007, he was a graduate student in Applied Physics at Stanford University, where he studied superconductivity in disordered thin films. Myles grew up in Toronto, Canada.

Frank Dimroth is heading the "III-V Epitaxy and Solar Cells" department at Fraunhofer ISE in Freiburg, Germany. He joined the institute in 1996 and since performed research on high efficiency III-V solar cells for space and concentrator photovoltaics. The institute has a core focus on applied research and works with many companies in this field. In 2005, Frank was co-founder of Concentrix Solar (today SOITEC Solar), a leading manufacturer for CPV systems. His team demonstrated record efficiencies for III-V multi-junction solar cells and recently presented a wafer bonded device with 44.7 % efficiency.

AM4 Characterization Part I: Advanced Electrical Characterization Techniques and Analysis

Instructors: Drs. Keith Emery, Sachit Grover and Jian Li, Measurements and Characterization Division, National Renewable Energy Laboratory

If you find yourself asking the questions:

1) Why is the VOC of my device lower than expected?
2) What aspect of my solar cell should I be improving?
3) How do I identify/quantify losses in my solar cell?
4) How do I connect device physics and material science?

Then Characterization Part I and Part II are the right tutorials for you. This is a two part tutorial in the AM and PM, although you may register independently for either.

This tutorial starts by revising the physics of a solar cell and textbook theoretical models used for analyzing J-V and QE measurements. Impact of recombination mechanisms and defects on these measurements; Temperature and voltage dependence of current conduction mechanisms; Influence of surface recombination on QE are some of the topics that will be covered in the first part. The second part of this tutorial will help connect macroscopic observables such as VOC to recombination mechanisms active in the solar cell. A back to basics approach for semiconductor recombination physics is used to derive new equations that empower quantitative separation of recombination channels. The third part of this tutorial will review capacitance-based measurement including C-V, admittance spectroscopy, and DLTS. These techniques enable the characterization of electrical properties of the junction, absorber, and back contact.

Keith Emery established and has managed the Cell and Module Performance Characterization team at NREL since 1980. The team established the procedures for calibrating cells and modules that have since been codified in standards and adopted by the international PV community. He received his B.S. physics and M.S.E.E. from Michigan State in 1979 and worked on a PhD at Colorado State in 1979-1980 and 1982. His graduate thesis work was in the area of comprehensive modeling of the pulsed hydrogen fluoride laser system, electron and laser beam vapor phase epitaxy of oxides and nitrides, and ion beam sputtering of tin oxide on Si. He has 312 publications and 5 chapters in PV books to date and one patent for a laser photoresponse mapper. His ISO 17025 PV accredited calibration group provides the community with reference cell calibrations and efficiency certification. He is also active in PV standards development and consulting on PV performance rating hardware, solar simulation, current versus voltage measurement software and procedures. He is the recipient of the 2007 NCPV Paul Rappaport, 2009 NREL Harold M. Hubbard award, 2012 World Renewable Energy Network Pioneer Award, and the 2013 IEEE William R. Cherry award.

Sachit Grover, is Senior Device Scientist at Scifiniti, Inc. since 2013. Prior to joining Scifinifi, he was a postdoctoral researcher with the Silicon Group at NREL. He has extensively worked on kerfless silicon technologies and investigated materials and architectures for high efficiency silicon photovoltaics. He received a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from University of Colorado Boulder and a B.E. in electrical engineering from Indian Institute of Technology Delhi.

Jian V. Li is research scientist at National Renewable Energy Laboratory since 2007. He works on electrical characterization of semiconductor materials and energy conversion devices. He previously worked on infrared lasers and photodetectors at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA/Caltech and on measurement electronics at National Instruments Co. He received a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and a B.E. in modern physics from the University of Science and Technology of China.

AM5 Photovoltaic System Performance Modeling

Instructors: Instructor: Drs. Cliff Hansen, Joshua Stein and Dan Riley, Photovoltaic Modeling and Analysis Team, Sandia National Laboratory

This tutorial will provide attendees with a basic understanding of the modeling steps required to predict PV system performance from weather information. The series of modeling steps may include irradiance translation to plane-of-array, irradiance to DC energy conversion, DC to AC energy conversion, cell temperature estimation, and shading or reflection effects. Explanations of modeling procedures will be demonstrated using Sandia National Laboratories' PV_LIB photovoltaic modeling toolbox for MATLAB (provided at no cost through http://pvpmc.org); knowledge of MATLAB programming is not required, but will be very useful in understanding the demonstrations.

Dr. Joshua Stein is a Distinguished Member of the Technical Staff at Sandia National Laboratories working in the area of Photovoltaics and Grid Integration. Dr. Stein's specialty is modeling and analysis of complex natural and engineered systems, including assessments of uncertainty and sensitivity using stochastic methods. He currently develops and validates models of solar irradiance, photovoltaic system performance, reliability, and PV interactions with the grid. He leads the PV Performance Modeling Collaborative (http://pvpmc.org). He has a Ph.D. from the University of California, Santa Cruz in Earth Sciences.

Dr. Clifford Hansen is a Distinguished Member of the Technical Staff at Sandia National Laboratories working in the area of photovoltaics and solar resource modeling. Dr. Hansen's work includes development of methods for accurately calibrating PV performance models to measured system data, and specializes in characterization and analysis of uncertainty in model predictions. He has a Ph.D. from The George Washington University in Mathematics.

Mr. Daniel Riley is a Senior Member of the Technical Staff at Sandia National Laboratories working in the area of Photovoltaics characterization and modeling. Mr. Riley's work includes designing tests to characterize and evaluate PV and CPV modules, and developing and implementing model algorithms for PV-related models. He has an M.S. from the University of Missouri - Rolla in Electrical Engineering.

PM1 Third Generation Photovoltaics: Advanced Concepts to Boost Efficiencies Beyond the Schockley-Queisser Limit

Instructor: Dr. Gavin Conibeer, Professor, School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, and Dr. Nicoleta Sorloaica-Hickman, Associate Professor, Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida

While the conventional photovoltaic technologies are currently dominating the market and advancing, there are still many exciting research efforts in developing novel materials and device architectures in this area. This tutorial will provide a perspective of the new technologies and materials, as well as novel device concepts which are actively being investigated globally to overcome the current limit of photovoltaic conversion efficiency and further drive down the cost of PV electricity generation. Topics covered will include major losses in single junction PV and approaches to reduce loss such as tandem; IBSC; up-conversion; down-conversion; MEG; TPV; hot carrier cell. In addition, we will present perspectives for future PV devices - further experimental proofs of concept, development to industry and other new concepts (quantum antennae, non-reciprocating circulators).

Professor Gavin Conibeer received his BSc degree from Queen Mary College, London University in Materials Science; MSc from the University of North London in Polymer Science; and PhD from Southampton University, UK, in III-V semiconductors for tandem PV cells. Conibeer has held research positions at Monash, Southampton, Cranfield and Oxford Universities and moved to his current location at the University of New South Wales, Sydney in 2002. He has worked on III-V, II-VI, group IV and nanostructure materials for solar cells as well as PV systems and policy. He has published more than 150 refereed papers and been successful in securing more than A$12M of research funding. He is an editor of Progress in Photovoltaics. Conibeer is currently Professor and Australian Research Council Future Fellow at the University of New South Wales where he leads the Third Generation Photovoltaics research group.

Nicoleta Sorloaica-Hickman is currently a Research Associate Professor in the Solar Technologies Research Division and the leader of the Laboratory for Photovoltaic and Thermoelectric Materials and Devices at Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) - University of Central Florida. She received a B.S. and M.S in Physics from "Al. I. Cuza" University - Romania in 1998 and 1999, respectively. She received her second M.S. and Ph.D. in Physics from Clemson University in 2004 and 2006, respectively. At FSEC, Dr. Sorloaica-Hickman's group performs research at the leading edge of advances in electronic, and thermal materials, and devices for applications in photovoltaic, thermoelectric, and solar energy integrated systems, developing inexpensive hybrid constructions of Photovoltaic and Thermoelectric cell to improve the solar cell efficiency and longevity. In 2012 Dr. Sorloaica-Hickman co-founded HybridaSol, which has the mission to combine the innovations in silicon cell and thermoelectric architectures with inexpensive and fast manufacturing process to bring solar cells to cost parity with coal-based electricity. She has (co)written over thirty papers in the areas of Photovoltaic and Thermoelectric and organized topical symposia, workshops and taught short courses on these topic as well as speaking at numerous national and international conferences.

PM2 Photovoltaic Module Reliability

Instructor: Dr. John Wohlgemuth, Principal Scientist, Photovoltaic Reliability Research and Development, National Renewable Energy Laboratory

As PV has grown into a large business, reliability of the products and systems become even more important. Combined with pressure to reduce production costs due to lower selling prices and the issue of PV component reliability becomes critical. This tutorial will cover:
  • Types of solar cells and modules commercially available or under development.
  • History of field failures and how they led to the development of accelerated stress tests.
  • Methods of failure analysis for PV modules.
  • Update on the work being done in the International PV Module QA Task Force to develop "Comparative Tests", Module manufacturing QA System Guidelines along with a conformity assessment system and finally how to develop module service life predictions.
Dr. Wohlgemuth joined the National Renewable Energy Laboratory as Principle Scientist in PV Reliability in 2010. He is responsible for establishing and conducting research programs to improve the reliability and safety of PV modules. Before joining NREL he worked at Solarex/BP Solar for more than 30 years. His PV experience includes cell processing and modeling, Si casting, module materials and reliability, and PV performance and standards. Dr. Wohlgemuth has been an active member of working group 2 (WG2), the module working group within TC-82, the IEC Technical Committee on PV since 1986 and has been convenor of the group for more than 10 years. Dr. Wohlgemuth is a member of the Steering Committee for International PV Module QA Forum and he chairs Task Group 3 on Humidity, Temperature and Voltage. Dr. John Wohlgemuth earned a Ph.D. in Solid State Physics from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

PM3 Silicon Solar Cell Technology

Instructor: Dr. Stuart Bowden, Associate Professor Research, School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University

Crystalline silicon continues to be the dominant technology in solar cell production. There are also a number of advanced technologies which will dominate the next wave of large scale deployment on manufacturing lines and in field installation. This tutorial will cover all aspects of production in crystalline silicon from the present and into the future. We will delve into device physics of silicon solar cells and how the limitations in present devices can be overcome for both higher efficiency and higher throughput. The various aspects of production will also be covered: from crystallization to wafering, through cell production and finishing with module design and testing.

Stuart Bowden received his Ph.D. from the University of New South Wales (UNSW) in 1996 for work on static concentrators using silicon solar cells. Following graduation, he transferred the buried contact solar cell technology from UNSW to Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT). In 1998, he joined the Inter-University Micro Electronics Centre (IMEC) in Belgium where he demonstrated rear surface passivation of multicrystalline silicon wafers using boron diffusions and inversion layers created by silicon nitride. In 2001, he joined Georgia Institute of Technology where he worked on molecular beam epitaxy and the characterization of interface states in a variety of oxide materials. From 2004 - 2008 he led the effort at the Institute of Energy Conversion at the University of Delaware, on the development of advanced silicon solar cell structures based around super-passivation and induced junctions. He presently heads the industrial collaboration laboratory at Arizona State University

PM4 Characterization Part II: Electro-Optical and Structural Characterization of PV Materials and Devices

Instructors: Dr. Brian Gorman, Associate Professor, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines and Dr. Steve Johnston, Measurements and Characterization Division, National Renewable Energy Laboratory

The first part of this tutorial will cover electro-optical techniques that can enhance in-line material characterization, process control, cell inspection, and failure analysis. Minority carried lifetime measurements such as TRPL and microwave PCD that are used to determine material quality and surface passivation will be discussed. Fundamentals and examples will be provided for rapid and non-destructive camera imaging techniques such as PL, EL, ILIT and DLIT. The second part of this tutorial will discuss techniques with improved spatial and chemical resolution that aid in understanding the complex processing-structure-property relationships in PV devices. An introduction will be provided to advanced techniques based on the scanning electron microscope (such as EDS, CL and EBIC) and transmission electron microscope (such as EELS and APT) that allow investigating the chemistry, energy levels, and structure of defects. This tutorial will also cover XRD and SIMS that help identify materials phases, layer and interface microstructure, and dopant level chemistry.

Dr. Brian Gorman received his PhD in Ceramic Engineering from the University of Missouri - Rolla (now Missouri S&T) in 2003 under the direction of Dr. Harlan Anderson. He completed a postdoctoral research position at Texas Instruments and subsequently went on to teach at the University of North Texas. While at UNT, Dr. Gorman co-established the Center for Advanced Research and Technology, including a full suite of materials characterization tools. Following sabbatical appointments at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Dr. Gorman transitioned to the Colorado School of Mines, where he established the Atom Probe Tomography Laboratory. His current research interests are in cm to atomic scale correlative characterization techniques as applied to Si, CdTe, CIGS, III-V, and organic PV devices as well as oxides as transparent contacts and ferroelectrics. He is the author of over 100 peer reviewed publications, primarily related to processing-structure relationships in inorganic materials, with special emphasis in atomic scale analysis using laser assisted atom probe tomography.

Dr. Steve Johnston received the B.S. degree in engineering from the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) in 1991, the M.S. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign in 1995, and the Ph.D. degree in materials science from CSM in 1999. From 1991 to 1993, he worked at integrated-circuit manufacturer Texas Instruments. Since 1996, he has been with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. His work and research interests have included minority-carrier lifetime by photoconductive decay and time-resolved photoluminescence, deep-level transient spectroscopy, and imaging techniques that include photoluminescence, electroluminescence, and lock-in thermography.

PM5 Distributed Grid Integration using Solar PV Systems

Instructors : Michael Coddington and Blake Lundstrom, Distributed Energy Systems Integration Group, National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Dr. Ravel Ammerman, Teaching Professor, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, Colorado School of Mines

Renewable energy resources are widely distributed geographically and are intermittent in nature, so they cannot be directly controlled and dispatched like the more traditional sources of generation. Large electrical power networks have been historically designed using centralized power generating stations supplying customer loads over interconnected transmission and distribution networks. Increasing the penetration level of distributed renewable energy sources requires adjustments to the existing operating procedure and design philosophy of large-scale power systems.

The workshop begins with a high-level overview of energy resources and distributed generation technologies, followed by an in-depth technical discussion of distributed generation interconnection issues. The intent of the workshop is to encourage audience interaction by soliciting input from all participants, using distributed generation interconnection case studies to facilitate discussions. We will cover: Energy System Basics - The Electric Power Grid, Distributed Energy Systems - PV Systems, Applicable Standards and Codes, Interconnection Processes and Procedures, Integrating Distributed Generation - Problems and Mitigation Techniques.

Michael Coddington is a Senior Electrical Engineering Researcher and Principal Investigator in Distributed Grid Integration within the Power Systems Engineering Center at NREL. Prior to NREL, Michael worked in the electric utility sector for 20 years in distribution planning and key account management. His work at NREL focuses on the integration of distributed generation systems to the electric distribution system, with a focus on high saturation PV concerns and solutions. He has authored and collaborated on dozens of technical reports and white papers focusing on integrating distributed generation systems onto the grid.

Blake Lundstrom is a Research Electrical Engineer in the Distributed Energy Systems Integration group at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, where he has been employed since 2009. His research at NREL is focused on integration of distributed and renewable energy resources into the electric distribution system. Specifically, his research involves distribution system modeling, advanced power electronics development, modeling and evaluation of microgrid systems, and advanced modeling and evaluation methods for grid interconnection systems using real-time hardware-in-the-loop techniques. Blake has taught courses in Electrical Engineering as an adjunct faculty member at Colorado School of Mines. He is a member of IEEE and a registered Engineering Intern in the State of Colorado. He received his B.S. in Engineering (Electrical Specialty - Power Systems) and M.S. in Electrical Engineering (Power Systems Specialty) from Colorado School of Mines.

Dr. Ravel F. Ammerman (IEEE Sr. Member) is a Teaching Professor, specializing in energy systems, in the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department at Colorado School of Mines. He also works as a Research Associate at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Ravel has over 33 years of combined teaching and industrial experience. Dr. Ammerman has coauthored and published a number of technical articles. His research interests include distributed generation integration, arc flash hazard analysis, electrical safety, computer applications in power system analysis, and engineering education.

PM6 Meeting the Future Education and Training Needs of the Photovoltaic Workforce

Instructors: Jerry Ventre, Energy Consultant and Former Director of the Photovoltaics and Distributed Generation Division, Florida Solar Energy Center, and Joe Sarubbi, Technical Education and Training Consultant to the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), and Project Manager, Solar Instructor Training Network and Grid Engineering for Accelerated Renewable Energy Deployment.

This tutorial will begin by providing an update on photovoltaic market trends, and by reviewing the photovoltaic industry value chain with a focus on the needs of four key target groups for photovoltaic education and training: construction trades, technicians, business, and technical professionals. The education and training needs of the first three groups have been and continue to be addressed by the Solar Instructor Training Network (SITN), which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy through its SunShot Initiative. Suggested curriculum and training approaches will be presented and discussed. A major portion of the tutorial will examine the implications of the evolving smart grid and distributed technologies on both photovoltaic and utility industry workforces. The objectives and status of the DOE-sponsored Grid Engineering for Accelerated Renewable Energy Deployment (GEARED) program will be presented, and will include a gap analysis between legacy programs and evolving power systems engineering curriculum that address the needs of a transformed and modernized electric utility grid. Approaches used by four different Distributed Technology Training Consortiums (DTTCs) to accelerate the transfer of research from the laboratory to applications to the classroom will be reviewed, along with innovative delivery paradigms that increase the efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity of the education and training programs. Exemplary programs and approaches will be discussed. The tutorial should be of interest to faculty and administrators involved in photovoltaic instruction, curriculum improvement, and related program development.

COURSE CONTENT: Specific topics will include:

1. Photovoltaic technology and market trends
2. The photovoltaic industry value chain
3. Key target audiences for education and training
4. Solar Instructor Training Network (SITN): focus on construction trades and technicians
5. Suggested curriculum for solar installer and building inspector training
6. Distributed resources and the evolving smart grid
7. Grid Engineering for Accelerated Renewable Energy Deployment (GEARED)
8. Gap analysis for power systems engineering curriculum
9. Course, curriculum and program development best practices
10. Accelerated transfer of research results into new course and curriculum content
11. Increasing efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity of engineering education using innovative delivery paradigms
12. Exemplary education and training programs
13. Summary, conclusions, and recommendations

COURSE MATERIALS: Course materials will consist of a compendium of all course slides and a list of suggested references and useful websites.

Dr. Jerry Ventre is a consultant in photovoltaic systems engineering, specializing in workforce development, system design and product assurance. He received B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in aerospace engineering from the University of Cincinnati, and has over thirty-five years of experience in research, development, design and systems analysis. In addition to leading the photovoltaics and distributed power programs at the Florida Solar Energy Center for over 20 years, Dr. Ventre was the first international chair of the Institute for Sustainable Power Awards Committee, managed the development of the original NABCEP task analysis and study guide for PV system installation, and was recently appointed chair of a committee to review and improve the NABCEP PV entry level program. He has taught at both graduate and undergraduate levels, including PV systems, and has been heavily involved in workforce development. He has offered eight train-the-trainer workshops around the country, assisting faculty in course and program development. Dr. Ventre has been a recipient of a number of awards for contributions to engineering and engineering education. He has over 150 technical publications to his credit and is co-author with Roger Messenger of the highly regarded text entitled Photovoltaic Systems Engineering.

Joe Sarubbi is a consultant, currently serving as Project Manager for the Interstate Renewable Energy Council who is National Administrator of the Solar Instructor Training Network - a U.S. Department of Energy SunShot initiative. Prior to accepting his most recent project, Joe was a Professor, Department Chair, and Executive Director at Hudson Valley Community College. Joe was the main architect for the college's TEC-SMART facility, the country's first totally integrated Training and Education Center for Semi-Conductor Manufacturing and Alternative and Renewable Technologies, and in 2009 was honored by the visit of President Obama in which the President recognized his work in developing model programs for other institutions to emulate. With over thirty-five years in industry and education training experience, Joe has garnered a national reputation for the design and delivery of renewable energy and other industry training programs. Joe is a Board Member of the North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners (NABCEP) and a Board Member of the Association of Community College Energy and Water Educators. Joe has twice given expert testimony regarding renewable energy training programs and policy before the U.S. Congress.